Minggu, 31 Mei 2015

Pricing Mechanism

In buying and selling , of course you want the price in accordance with the goods bought and sold . In order to achieve a fair transaction , it is important to ensure that the prevailing price is the right price corresponding goods bought and sold
The same logic applies in this type of financial transaction . Accuracy rates imposed on particular or pricing mechanism [ pricing mechanism) is generally a necessary condition to ensure the achievement of a fair transaction . However, in financial markets , from the first until modern times , people generally assume that the interest rate is the price of money (the price of money) . Is it true that this assumption ?
                Will briefly be explained that the interest rate was not the price of money, but only time price { price of time) . Consequently , the interest rate would not be able to play a role in the proper pricing mechanism and fair in various forms of financial transaction , in this case the borrowing of funds . Why?
                You may put forward the simple logic of the existence of inflation . However , here will be shown that the application of the interest rate as the price of money can not reflect the real value of money , it's up to whether there is inflation or not . Even if you can, at most, only a representation of the interest rate shadow price ( shadow price) of money or funds lent.
                To understand this, you can re-grasp the concept of time value of money as has been discussed in the previous issue Not Tafsir. Briefly, the concept of time value of money itself is actually not in itself indicate that the interest rate reflects the actual cost or the price of money, interest rate only time prices based opportunity (opportunity) owned.
                Enough with simple math to prove it. Equation value for money at this time (present value or value kiwari) clearly states that the value of money or investing in the future (future value) does not grow based on the value kiwarinya, because kiwari just a constant value. For those of you who like math, a decrease in the equation will show that the value of future value will change based on the time and the interest rate. In other words, the future value of an investment will change over time because it is a function of time itself. It is clear that the interest rate of the time it turns out is the price of money.
                In practical language, let's say you do a transaction on a loan through conventional loans. In the contract, it appears that you are obliged to return the principal installments plus borrowing costs are valued based on the time of borrowing. The higher the interest rate, the more expensive the price of his time.
                For more convincing, you try to create simple production function where the money we regard as one of the inputs. Replace input of capital goods with money (loans) so that the input function is the production of money and time. In a production function like this, money can not play a role in the productive process. The reason is because the money is not necessarily can be transformed into a productive input.
                The implication is that increasing time would not necessarily going to increase production. In other words, the increase in production due to the increase of input time by default is zero until at any time as long as there is no transformation of money, or loans become productive input in the time period. Therefore, the assumption that time is one of the inputs is unfounded because it did not affect the level of production.
                Similarly, the loan money itself. The growth of the money invested will not affect the output during the loan was not spent on productive things. Unlike the case for example if you buy with this money machine. When the engine is started, the output will increase.
                These facts show that the money and will Watu productive only if the loan to buy capital goods, then used productivity. It should be noted that the term "productivity by time" does not mean that production is determined olehwaktu, but merely hinted that output will increase over time if the use of such capital goods add to the output. It can be said that the output and time Meru feed two separate things altogether. Time only serves as a description of the evolution of output.
                And the above description is quite clear that the interest rate is not the price of money. Borrowing money would not necessarily add to the output for the money not spent on productive capital goods. It is enough to justify the application of interest rate fallacy as "refund fee" that makes the value of the loan continues ballooned over time.
                Another implication is that in financial transactions , pricing mechanism needs to be done through price terms other than interest rates. Another form of transaction in which the pricing mechanism is not at all associated with the time -for example, setting the selling price is based on a margin over sales contract or contracts for capital goods would result , more equitable and can even be scientifically justified .
                From the perspective of this pricing mechanism , probably quite obvious presumably why a verse forbids usury and as pembandmgnya is a contract of sale is lawful . However, because this section is not commentary , of the jurists and the commentators - who is more competent to explain .

Bahasa Inggris Bisnis 2

Relative Clause and Conditional Sentence

1. What is relative clause ! explain and find a passage then you determine its relative clause.

A clause that generally modifies a noun or noun phrase and is introduced by a relative pronoun (which, that, who, whom, whose), a relative adverb (where, when, why), or a zero relative. Also known as an adjective clause.

A relative clause is a postmodifier--that is, it follows the noun or noun phrase it modifies. Relative clauses are traditionally divided into two types: restrictive and nonrestrictive.

"More than 840,000 Vietnamese asylum seekers left the Communist regime and arrived in the countries of Southeast Asia and Hong Kong. These people, who came to be known as the 'boat people,' risked their lives at sea in search for freedom."
(Tai Van Nguyen, The Storm of Our Lives: A Vietnamese Family's Boat Journey to Freedom. McFarland, 2009)

"She had plenty of acquaintances, but no friends. Very few people whom she met were significant to her. They seemed part of a herd, undistinguished."
(D.H. Lawrence, The Rainbow, 1915)

2. What is conditional sentences ! how many types of conditional sentences are there ? make examples for each type !

Conditional Sentence is a sentence that contains the assumption is often called a conditional sentence where an event will be fulfilled if the condition is met. In a sentence of conditional sentences, there are two clauses, namely: main clause and the if clause.
3 The types of conditional sentence
1. Type I (future)
This first type of conditional sentences refer to future events (future) so the fact or facts of his statement is still a possibility that may happen or may not happen. The first type of conditional pattern is as follows:

If + simple present, future tense
if + Simple Present, will-Future

examples :
· If he come tomorrow, I will be at home.
· If  opik meets tatjana, he will be happy.
· If Aghnia wants, she can come everytime.
· If I find her address, I will send her an invitation.
· I will send her an invitation if I find her address.

2. Type II (present)
Sentence type II modality is a modality for the present sentence kaliamat which is contrary to the events occurring in the present (present). So the facts in the present tense.b. Type II (present). Sentence type II modality is a modality for the present sentence kaliamat which is contrary to the events occurring in the present (present). So the facts in the present tense.

If + simple past tense, past future tense
If + Simple Past, main clause with Conditional I (= would + Infinitive)

examples :
· If I had my own car, I would go there my self
· if I had money now, I would buy more things
· If I wanted, I could force him to come now.
· If I found her address, I would send her an invitation.
· If John had the money, he would buy a Ferrari.

3. Type III (past)

Type III conditional sentence is a sentence modality for the past where the sentence is contrary to the reality that happened in the past (past). So should the fact that in the past tense.
If + past perfect tense, past perfect future
If + Past Perfect, main clause with Conditional II

examples :
· If I had chosen the right one, I would not have.
· If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation.
· I would have sent her an invitation if I had found her address.
· If I hadn’t studied, I wouldn’t have passed my exams.
· If Andro had Realize how hurt it was for me, He would have said sorry.

Senin, 20 April 2015


11. Mention thw kinds of pronoun!
Make sentences for each kind!
Pronoun is a word that is used instead of a noun e.g she, he, it, his, her, him etc.

1.       Relative Pronouns
Relative pronouns adalah kata ganti yang menunjuk pada kata benda yang mendahuluinya (antecedent) yang berfungsi sebagai penghubung dalam kalimat. Relative pronouns biasa diletakkan di awal dependent clause atau anak kalimat yang menerangkan atau memberikan informasi tambahan kepada independent clause atau main clause. Kata ganti yang digunakan adalah: who, whom, whose, which, dan that.
Example :
·         The man who is sitting in the corner is my friend.
·         The boy whom we visited is her boyfriend.
·         The girl whose car was sold will go to study abroad.
Kata who, whom, whose, which, dan that pada contoh di atas menunjuk pada kata benda sebelumnya (the man, the boy, the girl, the filling cabinet, the book).
Nouns (kata benda) atau pronouns (kata ganti) seperti the man, the boy, the girl, the filling cabinet, dan the book disebut dengan istilah antecedent.
·         Voters whose names begin with the letters M to Z should go to Room 2.
·         That photo is a reminder of someone who was very important to me.
·         Hands up everyone who would like a drink.
Untuk menunjuk pada orang, gunakan relative pronouns: who, whom, whose dan that.
·         the man who spoke
the man that spoke (meskipun pemakaian that juga benar, who lebih disarankan sebagai subject pronoun)
·         the man that I saw
the man whom I saw  (meskipun pemakaian whom juga benar, that lebih disarankan sebagai object pronoun)

Untuk menunjuk pada benda lainnya atau hewan, gunakan relative pronouns: which, that dan whose.
·         the cat which was sitting on the mat
·         the cat that was sitting on the mat
·         the book whose cover was torn
·         a book to which I often refer
Ketika menunjuk pada sesuatu benda, of which bisa dipakai untuk menggantikan whose.
·         a book the cover of which was torn
Perluasan relative pronouns dengan kata ganti seperti whoever, whomever, whatever dikenal sebagai indefinite relative pronouns (relative pronounstanpa antecedent).
·         The boy will tease whomever he likes.
·         She said whatever came to mind.
·         Let in whoever comes to me.
Kata what juga dapat digunakan sebagai indefinite relative pronouns, contoh:
·         I will tell you what you need to know.
·         I know what I like.
2.       Indefinite relative pronouns memiliki sifat yang terdapat pada relative pronouns maupun indefinite pronouns. Jenis pronouns ini seperti menunjuk pada suatu kata benda, tetapi orang atau benda yang dimaksud tidak disebutkan dengan jelas.

3.       Personal Pronouns
Personal pronouns adalah kata ganti untuk orang, binatang, tempat, atau sesuatu benda. Dalam kalimat, personal pronouns dapat digunakan sebagai subjek (the subject of a verb) maupun objek (the object of a verb).
Subject Pronouns
Personal pronouns yang digunakan sebagai subjek kata kerja adalah I, you, he, she, it, we, dan they. Perhatikan contoh kalimat berikut ini:
·         Lisa likes cats. She has four cats.
Pada kalimat pertama, Lisa (proper noun) adalah subjek kalimat atau subjek kata kerja likes. Sedangkan pada kalimat kedua, she adalah subjek kalimat dan sebagai kata ganti untuk Lisa.
Beberapa contoh personal pronouns sebagai subjek:
·         My name is Michael. I am fourteen.
·         Our dog is very naughty. It likes to chase cats.
Object Pronouns
Personal pronouns yang digunakan sebagai objek kata kerja adalah me, you, him, her, it, us dan them. Perhatikan contoh kalimat berikut ini:
·         Lisa likes cats. She likes to stroke them.
Pada kalimat pertama, cats adalah objek kalimat atau objek kata kerja likes. Sedangkan pada kalimat kedua, them adalah objek kalimat dan sebagai kata ganti untuk cats.
Beberapa contoh personal pronouns sebagai objek:
·         I’m doing my homework. Dad is helping me.
·         Goodbye, children! I’ll call you later
Dalam tata bahasa Inggris, pembicara atau orang yang berbicara disebut dengan orang pertama (first person), sedangkan yang diajak berbicara adalah orang kedua (second person), dan orang yang dibicarakan disebut sebagai orang ketiga (third person).
Berikut ini adalah tabel kata ganti untuk orang pertama (first person), kedua (second person), dan ketiga (third person).

first person singular
second person singular
third person singular
first person plural
second person plural
third person plural

4.       Possessive Pronouns
Possessive pronouns adalah kata ganti yang menunjukkan kepemilikan atas suatu benda. Kata-kata yang biasa digunakan adalah mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs
- Look at those cars. Theirs is really ugly; ours is beautiful.
- This new car is mine. 

5.       Restrictive Clause
Restrictive clause adalah klausa adjektiva yang digunakan untuk memberikan tambahan informasi yang bermanfaat bagi nomina yang mendahuluinya dan informasi tersebut membedakan nomina itu dari yang lain.
-          Yesterday I met an old man who could fortell the future.
-          The book which you lent me is very interesting.
-          This is the place that I visited two years ago.
6.       Non-restrictive Clause
Non-restrictive clause adalah klause adjektiva yang semata-mata memberikan keterangan tambahan pada nomina yang mendahuluinya, namun keterangan tambahan tersebut tidaklah begitu penting seperti halnya dalam restrictive clause. Atau dengan kata lain, keterangan tambahan tersebut bisa kita hilangkan karena nominanya sudah tertentu dan sudah dimengerti.
Non-restrictive clause dalam kalimat ditulis dengan menggunakan tanda koma (,).
-          Mr. Rahman, who lives next door, is a good neighbor.
-          CNN, which broadcasts actual news, is my favorite TV station.
-          I like reading The Firm, which was written by John Grisham.

There are 3 types of question ! what are they ?
Give the exemples for these 3 types !

There are three basic question types:
1.    Yes/No: the answer is “yes or no”
2.    Information Question
3.    Choice: the answer is “in the question”

1.   Yes/No Questions
The answers for simple questions in English are "Yes,","No," or "I don't know" (or its equivalent). The answers for information questions are varied--because they are used to ask about specific kinds of information. There are 2 types of interrogative sentence in English (question words), namely:  The WH question words and Yes or no questions
Yes-no question can be made by changing the declarative sentence (statement). You have to know which one subject, the main verb (not followed by any verb), and helping / auxiliary verb (primary auxiliary verb / capital). Brief explanation is as follows.
Example :
a.    Does he drink a juice ?
-          Yes, he does
-          No. he does not

b.     Do they make fried rice ?
-          Yes, they do
-          No, they do not

2.   Information Question (5W+1H)
The questions answered in the lead of a conventional newspaper article: who, what, when, where, why and how. Information questions are also called "Wh-" questions because many of the words that are used to ask this type of question begin with Wh-.
The 5Ws + H formula has been attributed to English rhetorician Thomas Wilson, who introduced the method in his discussion of the "seven circumstances" of medieval rhetoric
To be a journalist 5W 1H is very important, especially to write "lede" (some call it "leads") news, which is a paragraph (or two paragraphs) opening news. In approximately 35-40 words, should insert the 5W 1H. It was in the news writing.
Example sentences Information Question (5W+1H)
-          What was he watching? = sedang menonton apa dia?
-          Who are they? = siapa mereka?
-          Where do you live? = dimana kamu tinggal?
-          When do you marry? = kapan kamu menikah?
-          Why did it happen? = mengapa hal itu terjadi?
-          How did it happen? = bagaimana hal itu terjadi?

3.   Choice Question
Sometimes we give our listener a choice. We ask them to choose between two possible answers. So their answer is (usually) already in the question. Look at these examples:
Do you want tea ir coffee? Coffee, Please
Will we meet Jhon or James? Jhon.